Cannabidiol, also known as "CBD", is a specific type of phytocannabinoid. CBD is one of 113 Cannabinoids found in the Cannabis Sativa plant. The hemp or Cannabis Sativa plant produces these cannabinoids in their stems, leaves, and flowers. CBD is a 100% plant-based supplement. There are three common types of CBD used to make most of the products on the market: Full-Spectrum Distillate, Broad-Spectrum Distillate, and CBD Isolate. Cannabinoids are not found in the seeds of the cannabis plant (hemp seeds), but are often sold and advertised as being in products made with hemp seeds or hemp seed oil. This is why it is so important for consumers to do their research and verify what is in the products they are buying. Most reputable CBD companies will have certificates of analysis on their websites or available upon request.
How CBD and CBD-related products are made is an important, but often confusing and complicated, topic for those who are not members of the scientific community. Here is a basic rundown of what everyone should know before using CBD wellness supplements. When it comes to CBD, the journey begins with the seed. Farmers will grow Hemp (Cannabis Sativa) plants in large fields, then harvest the entire plant and pulverize it into what is known as biomass. It is important to look for companies that source from domestic farmers that do not use harmful pesticides or non organic fertilizers, which can remain in the biomass and leach into the earth, potentially harming people as well as the environment. When CBD is made from biomass, it is called an extraction. There are many ways of extracting, with the two most common ways being with solvent and solventless methods. Ethanol or alcohol extraction was a commonly used solvent extraction method in the past, but in more recent times it has been found that solventless extractions are safer and more efficient. CO2 extraction is the most commonly used solventless method. This involves releasing pressurized CO2 into a chamber with the biomass effectively blast freezing the plant's essential oils, separating them from the undesired plant matter. The result of this is called crude or undistilled oil. To further remove any impurities and isolate the cannabinoids, the crude oil is distilled with a similar process to that of making alcohol. The product of distillation is a full spectrum distillate, which is free of plant matter, but still contains all the cannabinoids the plant initially contained, including THC. Many CBD products call for 0% THC, which is why many companies will further process the Distillate in order to remove the THC through processes such as recrystallization or chromatography. The end result is a Broad Spectrum Distillate, or distillate that contains multiple phytocannabinoids, but has 0% THC content. For those that wish to make products with strictly CBD and no other cannabinoids, the distillate is further processed to create a crystalline form of pure 99% pure CBD, called Isolate. CBD Isolate makes for easier production of consistent and accurately potent CBD products.
Humans and animals all have endocannabinoid systems (ECS). This helps regulate sleep, eating, memory, pain, and the immune system. Endocannabinoid neurotransmitters were found to directly impact these functions back in 1988. With the advancing technologies and scientific evidence growing over the years, Cannabidiol (CBD) is increasingly becoming recognized and respected among health and wellness communities. Cannabidiol (CBD) naturally interacts with the neurotransmitters in our body due to its remarkably similar structure to endocannabinoid receptors. There are two types of receptors specifically affected: the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The CB1 receptors are primarily located in the central nervous system and are responsible for governing the functions of coordination, movement, pain, appetite, memory, and mood. The CB2 receptors are located within the peripheral nervous system which plays a role in the regulation of pain and inflammation.
CBD is non psychoactive and does not get you “high” like Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is also produced by the cannabis sativa plant. Although some CBD products contain the legal amount of THC (0.3%), it is not enough to cause a psychoactive effect. In fact, this microscopic amount of THC actually has positive effects when combined with CBD known as the “Entourage effect”. It is important to understand that each person reacts differently to Cannabidiol (CBD). Everyone’s body chemistry is different, meaning the types of CBD such as Isolate, Broad Spectrum or Full Spectrum could respond less or more effectively on an individual basis. Also how you consume CBD could play a factor in which method is most effective. There is no one size fits all when it comes to using CBD. It can be difficult to dictate the best application method and appropriate amount (Mg) to take. That is why it is always important to consult your doctor when looking into new supplements.
Hemp and CBD are currently federally legal in all 50 states as per the 2018 Farm Bill, which allows for cultivation of the Hemp plant. This bill categorized hemp and its derivatives as a separate entity from marijuana. The current federal regulations distinguish hemp from marijuana by the psychoactive THC content. While the THC content of marijuana can range from 5-25%, hemp can be legally sold with THC levels of 0.3% or less. While hemp is federally legal, states have taken action into their own hands on the regulation of how hemp and CBD can be sold and consumed within their respective jurisdictions. Traveling with CBD products is permitted by the TSA, but it is important to have some kind of documentation along with the product you are traveling with stating that it contains less than 0.3% THC in order to assure that there isn't any unwanted confusion. This can be easily be acquired by requesting a certificate of analysis (COA) from the manufacturer.